Who Invented French Fries?

Unraveling the Origin of French Fries

who invented french fries
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Have you ever wondered about the origin of French fries? The origin of these delectable, crispy potato sticks is a subject of much debate. Who invented French fries? Is it Belgium, France, or some other nation? The countless variations of this tale make it a riddle that’s not easily unraveled.

These lingering questions have sparked our curiosity and led us to embark on our own exploration in search of the authentic story behind the history of French fries. As you delve into this article, you’ll embark on a fascinating journey that uncovers:

The History of French Fries: From Tubers to Tantalizing Treat

1. The Origin of the Potato

First and foremost, let’s pay homage to the humble potato, the cornerstone of the delectable fries we all adore. Without this tuber, those golden sticks we love simply wouldn’t exist. Thus, we embark on a journey to explore the history of the potato and its significance.

a. Potatoes, an Explorer and Natives

origin of potato
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When we think of fries, we naturally gravitate towards France or Belgium. Nevertheless, Spain played a significant role in introducing the potato to Europe in the 16th century. But how did this come about?

To trace the potato’s journey to Europe, let’s rewind to 1536-1537. A Spanish explorer and conquistador, Jiménez de Quesada, ventured through South America with his armed forces in search of gold and emeralds. The riches they discovered were remarkable, but they also stumbled upon unknown cultures.

During one of their expeditions, they encountered a village in Colombia, abandoned by its natives. There, they discovered an unfamiliar tuber, which we now call the “potato.” Initially, the Spanish referred to it as “truffles.”

b, An Export from Spain to Europe

The most extensive documentation of the potato from this period can be attributed to Piedro Ceza de Leon. Historians debate the credit for the potato’s discovery, with some attributing it to Jiménez de Quesada. Nevertheless, it was over two decades later that sizable quantities of these tubers were brought back to Spain, studied, and eventually exported to Italy. Despite the initial desire to popularize the potato, cultivation encountered obstacles. The tubers were too small and, more importantly, had a bitter taste. It’s reasonable to assume that insufficient watering during initial cultivation attempts contributed to these issues.

Over time, the potato’s cultivation expanded across Europe. Farmers from various countries eventually perfected methods to grow larger, economically viable crops with the palatable taste we know today.

Also Read: History of Potatoes

2. French Fries: Their Roots and Cultural Evolution

The name “French fries” has transcended borders, becoming the widely used term for what we commonly refer to as “fries.” The French have bestowed upon the world inventions such as the hot air balloon, the sewing machine, and the bikini. Yet, if there’s one creation the French are proud to claim, it’s fries!

a. Who is Mr. Parmentier – The French Potato Hero?

Parmentier French potato hero
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In France, the potato’s rise to prominence can be credited to a French army doctor, Antoine-Augustin Parmentier. He was celebrated as the “champion of the potato.” During the Seven Years’ War, Parmentier found himself captured and was given potatoes as part of his rations.

At the time, the French only used potatoes as swine feed, convinced that consuming them led to various diseases. This is an amusing observation considering that in today’s era, potatoes are a staple in our daily culinary lives and have various industrial applications, such as potato starch used in cosmetics and the pharmaceutical industry.

In 1748, the French Parliament even banned potato cultivation, believing it caused leprosy. However, while imprisoned in Prussia, Parmentier was compelled to cultivate, peel, and consume potatoes. He discovered that French prejudices about this food were baseless.

Upon his return to France, Parmentier passionately advocated for the potato as a potential food source. Although he wished to cultivate them at the Hôpital des Invalides where he worked as a pharmacist, resistance to potatoes was substantial. Eventually, in the 18th century, the Paris medical faculty declared potatoes safe for human consumption.

Parmentier went further to promote the potato by hosting potato-based dinners attended by esteemed individuals like Benjamin Franklin, Antoine Lavoisier, King Louis XVI, and Queen Marie-Antoinette. He even employed guards to protect his potato patch, convincing the public of the vegetable’s immense value. He instructed these guards to accept bribes from people wishing to “steal” the potatoes. However, it wasn’t until the famine of 1785 that potatoes gained widespread popularity in France. From 1795, their cultivation flourished, including in the Royal Gardens of the Tuileries, which were transformed into potato fields.

b. The Origin of Pommes Pont-Neuf or Parisian Fried Potatoes

French fries made their appearance in Paris around 1789. Their predecessors, known as “Pommes Pont-Neuf,” were sold on the famous Parisian bridge as early as 1773. They gained immense popularity in France, especially in Paris, where street vendors sold them alongside other fried foods and hot chestnuts. The fries were also served as an accompaniment to Tournedos, a French dish consisting of roast beef and bacon. The preparation of these early potato sticks took longer due to their larger size, quite different from today’s fries.

3. Belgium or France: Who Invented French Fries?

Despite the name “French fries,” Belgium staunchly asserts its role as the creator of this delectable dish. However, Belgium isn’t the sole claimant of this dish’s origin. In this final section, you’ll discover which of the two protagonists—France or Belgium—can truly lay claim to inventing fries.

a. French Fries, an Alternative to Fried Fish in Winter

Recent historical research suggests that the origins of fries can be traced back to Belgium, specifically in the Namur region, where it’s believed potatoes were being prepared as early as the late 1600s. According to Belgian tradition, villagers in the Meuse valley, faced with frozen rivers during winter, had to find an alternative to their staple—small fried fish.

To satiate their hunger, they turned to potatoes. To make the potatoes resemble their usual catch, they sliced the tubers into shapes reminiscent of their usual fish. These potato slices were then fried, mimicking the preparation of fish. While there were no fryers back then, this tradition may well have influenced the creation of Fish and Chips.

Around the 1830s, two brothers, the Kriegers, adopted the concept of mobile stalls to sell fried potatoes, particularly at fairs like the one in Liège. They decided to name these fried potato sticks “Fritz,” which proved to be a more commercial name. This marked the birth of the iconic Belgian fries shack or “fritkok,” officially marking the origin of French fries.

b. Are French Fries Truly French?

soldiers belgian fries
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The most plausible reason behind the widespread misconception that fries are French is rooted in the name that has taken hold globally: French Fries. During World War I, American soldiers stationed in Belgium, specifically in West Flanders, were introduced to fries by their allies. However, the official language of the Belgian army was French, leading to a linguistic mix-up. Consequently, the soldiers mistakenly referred to these delightful crispy creations as French Fries.

This linguistic misunderstanding persisted and crossed the Atlantic, so today, ordering fries in the United States means asking for French Fries. Decades later, the credit still goes to France instead of Belgium—an injustice that endures and perturbs those who know the truth.

So, now you know why French fries are not called Belgian fries. Belgium, indeed, holds the title of the true inventor of fries, although it’s vital to acknowledge France’s role in popularizing this dish. Thanks to the contributions of these two nations, it’s easy to understand how this almost controversial subject remains a topic of passionate discussion.

Also Read: 10 Interesting Facts about Popcorn

4. Fries Beyond Borders: Evolution of French Fries Around the World

As French fries gained popularity in the 18th century, they began to evolve in various corners of the world, adapting to local tastes and preferences. Let’s embark on a delicious journey to explore how this humble dish transformed into a global sensation.

  • France: Ironically, it’s in France, despite its name association, where French fries received a gourmet touch. In the late 18th century, Chef François Louis Bracq tweaked the recipe. He decided to cut the potatoes into slender, uniform strips, giving birth to the iconic thin French fry. Parisians quickly fell in love with this crispy delicacy, and it became a staple in the city’s bistros.
  • United States: The United States adopted French fries as a quintessential side dish during the late 19th century. However, it wasn’t until the mid-20th century that they truly skyrocketed to fame, thanks to the fast-food industry. With the emergence of chains like McDonald’s, Burger King, and Wendy’s, the world was introduced to the crispy, golden sticks served in convenient paper cartons. Over time, American creativity spawned loaded fries with cheese, chili, and a variety of toppings.
  • Belgium: The birthplace of French fries had an eventful journey too. Initially sold as “pommes Pont-Neuf” on the streets of Paris, they eventually became associated with Belgium. The country embraced the delicious fries, leading to the opening of the first recorded “fritkot” or French fry shack by the Krieger brothers in the 1830s. These pioneers introduced thicker, heartier fries, which are still beloved today.
  • Canada: In Canada, particularly in Quebec, French fries met their match when combined with cheese curds and smothered in rich gravy. The result? Poutine, a comfort food sensation. This delectable dish has grown far beyond Canadian borders and can be found on menus worldwide.
  • Netherlands: Dutch “patat” or fries are known for their thickness. Typically, these fries are larger and heartier than the traditional French fry, offering a satisfying crunch on the outside and a fluffy interior. They’re often served in paper cones with a variety of sauces, ranging from ketchup and mayonnaise to peanut sauce and sate.
  • Germany: While Germans are famous for sausages, they’ve also embraced French fries. Here, you’ll find currywurst, a beloved street food that features sliced sausages topped with curry-flavored ketchup and served with a generous helping of fries.
  • South Africa: Known as “slap chips,” South African fries are distinctive due to their thicker cut. They’re often served with a vinegary and spicy seasoning, adding a unique twist to the classic snack.

5. The Cultural Impact of French Fries

history of french fries
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Beyond being a beloved snack, French fries have permeated popular culture in many ways. Their association with fast food and casual dining makes them a symbol of comfort and convenience. Iconic moments in movies, television shows, and advertisements have celebrated the allure of French fries.

  • Movies: French fries often steal the show on the silver screen. From heartwarming scenes of sharing fries at a diner to thrilling car chases ending at a drive-thru, movies have captured the essence of this snack. Remember the dancing fork in Disney’s “Beauty and the Beast” that playfully dipped into a mountain of fries?
  • Television: TV shows like “Friends” and “The Simpsons” have immortalized French fries. Who can forget Joey’s fierce defense of his fries or Homer’s obsession with “Mmm… French fries”?
  • Advertisements: Major brands, especially fast-food giants, have used French fries in their marketing. The iconic “I’m Lovin’ It” jingle from McDonald’s often accompanies the sight of golden fries in their ads.

6. Nutritional and Health Aspects of French Fries

french fries junk food
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While French fries are undeniably delicious, there’s an ongoing debate about their nutritional value and health implications. These concerns have led to a quest for healthier alternatives and cooking methods.

  • Nutritional Content: French fries are typically high in calories, thanks to deep frying in oil or fat. They also contain fat and sodium. The actual nutritional content can vary depending on factors like the type of oil used and portion size.
  • Health Considerations: Some studies link frequent consumption of French fries to health issues like obesity and heart disease. However, moderation is key, and healthier cooking methods, such as baking or air frying, can reduce their calorie and fat content.
  • Alternatives: In response to these concerns, many restaurants and home cooks have explored alternative preparations. Baked fries and sweet potato fries have gained popularity, offering a healthier twist on the classic.

7. Famous Establishments Serving French Fries

french fries origin culture
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Around the world, certain establishments have earned a reputation for serving outstanding French fries. These venues have mastered the art of creating the perfect fry.

  • Pommes Frites, New York: This iconic shop offers an array of unique dipping sauces, from sweet mango chutney to rich Vietnamese pineapple mayo.
  • The Golden State, California: Known for their sweet potato fries, The Golden State takes the fries-and-burger pairing to a whole new level.
  • Beck’s Cajun Café, Pennsylvania: If you’re looking for a spicy kick, this spot serves Cajun fries with a flavorful blend of seasonings.

8. Making the Perfect French Fries at Home

french fries at home
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For those who want to recreate the magic of French fries in their own kitchen, here are some tips to achieve that perfect batch:

  • Potato Variety: Opt for russet or Idaho potatoes, which have the right balance of starch and moisture.
  • Slicing Techniques: Slice the potatoes uniformly to ensure even cooking. You can choose between shoestring fries, thick-cut fries, or wedges, depending on your preference.
  • Frying Methods: You can deep fry for a classic texture, bake for a healthier version, or air fry for a crispy result with less oil.
  • Seasoning Suggestions: Experiment with various seasonings, from classic salt to spices like paprika, garlic powder, or truffle oil, to create your signature flavor.


Who invented French fries? Undoubtedly, Belgium rightfully claims the mantle of the fries’ original creator, but it’s equally important to acknowledge the significant part France played in making this delectable dish known worldwide. Thanks to the combined efforts of these two countries, it’s no wonder that this somewhat contentious topic continues to fuel spirited conversations and passionate debates.

Now, armed with this knowledge, you can confidently engage in discussions about the origins of fries, a subject that is sure to pique your curiosity. Wherever you may be, if your love for fries knows no borders, consider trying one of our traditional fryers to recreate that classic taste with ease.

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